Care for health among Polish men, taking into account social and economic factors, as well as the type of work
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Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland
Online publication date: 2021-06-01
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Katarzyna Hildt-Ciupińska   

Central Institute for Labor Protection – National Research Institute, Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warsaw, Poland
Med Pr 2021;72(4):351–362
Background: Epidemiological studies show that an inappropriate healthy lifestyle is a major incidence factor, inter alia, for cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, obesity, as well as premature deaths, especially among men. Material and Methods: In order to check the attitudes of men towards health and health behaviors, a questionnaire-based research was carried out among 600 men active on the labor market. Several standard questionnaire tools were used: the Positive Health Behaviors Scale (PHBS), the List of Personal Values for measuring the place of health in the value hierarchy; the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, the Work Ability Index, the Psychological Sex Inventory, and the Work–Life Balance Subscale of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II). Additionally, an independent questionnaire was developed. Results: In the PHBS, men could score 0–111 pts; the average score was 70.98 pts. A high level of care for health expressed in the scores ranging 80–111 pts was achieved by less than one-third of the respondents. One of the 4 groups (referred to as the “Active”) achieved the best result according to PHBS, with an average score of 77 pts. The worst group (referred to as the “Frustrated”) achieved an average of 54.5 pts. The latter performed physical or mixed work, and half of them worked shifts, including nights. Conclusions: The selected 4 groups were not found to differ from one another as much as the authors had expected, but they pointed to a very important aspect determining health care, namely socio‑‑economic factors. There is a great need to conduct health education among men in Poland, targeted especially at young, low-educated and blue-collar workers. The areas of lifestyle that need to be changed are: nutrition, physical activity and preventive examinations. Med Pr. 2021;72(4):351–62