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Biological significance of chromium III for the human organism

Anna Piotrowska 1  ,  
Wanda Pilch 1,  
Łukasz Tota 2,  
Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego im. Bronisława Czecha w Krakowie / University School of Physical Education in Krakow, Kraków, Poland (Wydział Rehabilitacji Ruchowej, Katedra Kosmetologii, Zakład Biochemii i Podstaw Kosmetologii / Faculty of Motor Rehabilitation, Faculty of Cosmetology, Department of Biochemistry and Basics of Cosmetology)
Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego im. Bronisława Czecha w Krakowie / University School of Physical Education in Krakow, Kraków, Poland (Wydział Wychowania Fizycznego i Sportu, Zakład Fizjologii i Biochemii, Instytut Nauk Biomedycznych / Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Biomedical Science Institute)
Polska Akademia Nauk Oddział w Krakowie / Polish Academy of Sciences Kraków Branch, Kraków, Poland (Instytut Farmakologii, Zakład Neurobiologii / Institute of Pharmacology, Department of Neurobiology)
Uniwersytet Jagielloński Collegium Medicum / Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland (Wydział Farmaceutyczny, Katedra Farmakobiologii / Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacobiology)
Currently, chromium is probably the most controversial transition metal. In recent publications it is clearly stated that it is not an essential micronutrient and should be considered to have a pharmacological effect. Conflicting scientific reports along with a huge amount of dietary supplements, as well as dietary and sports nutrients available on the market have prompted the authors to investigate the available information on the range of possible application, efficacy and safety of products containing salts or chelates of chromium III. The authors reviewed articles in electronic databases for the years 1959–2016, and selected works describing the biochemical, physiological and toxic properties of chromium salts and chelates and the range of possible applications in medicine, dietetics and sport. A critical analysis of reports dealing with the effect of chromium on the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, body composition, lean body mass and sports performance was carried out. The authors indicated papers analyzing the mechanism of action of chromium in the cognitive and affective disorders. Much attention has been paid to the safety use of chromium III supplements. There are still some unsolved issues. In the field of toxicology, a limited number of reports about environmental exposure to trivalent chromium in the workplace draws our attention. In the field of biochemical research, there is still a need to clarify the mechanism of psychiatric and endocrinological activity, especially in conjunction with the immune system. Med Pr 2018;69(2)
Anna Piotrowska   
Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego im. Bronisława Czecha w Krakowie, Wydział Rehabilitacji Ruchowej, Zakład Biochemii i Podstaw Kosmetologii, Katedra Kosmetologii, Al. Jana Pawła II 78, 31-571 Kraków