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Risk of chronic diseases limiting longevity and healthy aging by lifestyle and socio-economic factors during the life-course – a narrative review
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University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic (Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health)
University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic (Faculty of Medicine, Centre for Epidemiological Research)
Dagmar Skýbová   

University of Ostrava, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Centre for Epidemiological Research, Syllabova 19, 703 00 Ostrava – Vítkovice, Czech Republic
Online publication date: 2021-10-19
Med Pr 2021;72(5):535–548
The review provides a comprehensive summary of existing literature focusing on the most serious risk factors of non-communicable diseases and collects current knowledge on their distribution, determinants, clusters, psychological and socio-economic consequences. Especially, the life-course approach is stressed, early life consequences of the later onset of chronic diseases, the risk behavior and its social, socio-economic and psychosocial determination is reviewed. Potential of preventing these harmful consequences has a lifelong approach. The aim is to demonstrate the opportunity for future health system transformation in terms of public health prevention regarding the non-communicable diseases. It is concluded that personalized lifestyle medicine should address a patient’s health by empowering them with the information they need to regain control of their health. Preventive methods should be tailored for each patient, considering such patient’s specific genes, environment, lifestyle, early life factors and social patterns of risk factors to avoid burden of health in later age. Intervention and preventive measures should target not only to individual factors but should reflect wider social, psychosocial and socio-economic consequences. It is also crucial from the point of view of public health to consider data on exposome, which are not included in epidemiological studies as well as its impact on health in the context of non-communicable diseases. Med Pr. 2021;72(5):535–48