Dual practice of nurses in Poland against the current staff resources
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Uniwersytet Jagielloński – Collegium Medicum / Jagiellonian University – Medical College, Kraków, Poland (Instytut Pielęgniarstwa i Położnictwa, Wydział Nauk o Zdrowiu / Institute of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Health Sciences)
Małopolska Okręgowa Izba Pielęgniarek i Położnych w Krakowie / Małopolska District Chamber of Nurses and Midwives in Kraków, Kraków, Poland
Ośrodek Rehabilitacyjno-Opiekuńczy / Rehabilitation and Care Center, Zagórzyce Dworskie, Poland
Online publication date: 2020-12-16
Corresponding author
Iwona Malinowska-Lipień   

Uniwersytet Jagielloński – Collegium Medicum, Instytut Pielęgniarstwa i Położnictwa, Wydział Nauk o Zdrowiu, ul. Kopernika 25, 31-501 Kraków
Med Pr Work Health Saf. 2021;72(2):113–121
Background: Employment of health care workers simultaneously in 2 workplaces (the so called dual practice) is a common phenomenon in almost every country. In Poland, a possibility of employment in 2 or more workplaces arose with the socio-political changes and the reform of the health care system. In Poland, the scale of the phenomenon, as well as its motifs and potential effects influencing both employees and the whole health care system, are still not known despite numerous studies being conducted to that end. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 1023 nurses (males and females) employed in public and non-public health care facilities in the territory of the Lesser Poland Voivodeship. The research tool was the authors’ poll questionnaire. In the statistical elaboration, the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test and the χ2 independence test were used. For all the analyses, the maximum permissible error of type I, α = 0.05, was accepted, and p ≤ 0.05 was recognized as statistically significant. Results: Work experience of the nurses studied ranged 1–43 years, on average it was 23.1 years (SD = 11.1). Persons aged >40 years accounted for 77.5% (N = 793), out of whom 38.2% (N = 391) were aged 41–years and 39.3% (N = 402) >50 years. In the study group, 450 (44%) people were employed in 2 workplaces, out of whom 93.5% in the nurse position, working >160 h/month (39%). A decisive reason to take up an additional job (93.3% of the study group) were financial matters. Conclusions: Financial matters are the main reason for which almost half of the studied nurses undertake additional employment, in the scope twice as high as the work load. Research suggests the need to verify the Central Registry of Nurses and Midwives in order to precisely estimate the number of dual practice positions and the number of persons employed as nurses not only in the south of Poland but also in whole country. The results point to the necessity of further research concerning both the reasons for and consequences of dual practice for nurses, and the impact of this phenomenon on the quality of care and patient safety. Med Pr. 2021;72(2):113–21