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REVIEW PAPER
Androgen receptor modulation and bladder cancer prevention – a short review
 
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1
Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (Department of Translational Research)
2
Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering (IBGE), Islamabad, Pakistan (Department of Molecular Oncology)
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Edyta Wieczorek   

Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Department of Translational Research, św. Teresy 8, 91-348 Łódź, Poland
Online publication date: 2022-03-14
 
Med Pr 2022;73(2):151–162
 
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ABSTRACT
The prevalence of bladder cancer (BCa) is 4 times higher in men as compared to women, and gender differences have been the focus of attention for few years. Androgen receptor (AR) may be a putative explanation for gender differences. It may also be related to unfavourable BCa progression and development because of the increased androgen sensitivity of urothelium to carcinogens. Moreover, cigarette smoking and occupational exposure to carcinogens have been reported to play contributory roles with the highest attributable risk of BCa. In this review, the authors attempt to summarize the seminal research works that synthesized current understanding of the central role of AR in the negative regulation of carcinogen detoxification activity in BCa. In particular, the authors discuss the regulatory effects of 3,3’-diindolylmethane on AR gene transcription through microRNA as its suggested effect on the prevention of BCa. Moreover, to show the still existing problem of occupational exposure and BCa incidence, the authors review recent studies in this area. Based on the rapidly accumulating scientific evidence, it seems pragmatic that androgen/AR-mediated interference in the detoxification mechanism may be inhibited by phytochemicals. Therefore, collectively, nutrition has a key role as gene–nutrient interactions are important contributors to BCa prevention, also through epigenetic modifications. Here, the authors have derived suggestions for future research. Med Pr. 2022;73(2):151–62
eISSN:2353-1339
ISSN:0465-5893