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Epidemiology, diagnosis, and prevention of tick-borne encephalitis in Poland and selected European countries – a position statement of the Polish group of experts
 
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1
Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny / Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland (Klinika Pediatrii z Oddziałem Obserwacyjnym / Department of Pediatrics with Clinical Assessment Unit)
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Polskie Towarzystwo Wakcynologii / Polish Society of Vaccinology, Warsaw, Poland
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Uniwersytet Medyczny w Białymstoku / Medical University of Bialystok, Białystok, Poland (Klinika Chorób Zakaźnych i Neuroinfekcji / Department of Infectious Diseases and Neuroinfections)
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Uniwersytet Medyczny w Białymstoku / Medical University of Bialystok, Białystok, Poland (Klinika Chorób Zakaźnych i Hepatologii / Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology)
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Polskie Towarzystwo Epidemiologów i Lekarzy Chorób Zakaźnych / Polish Association of Epidemiologists and Infectiologists, Białystok, Poland
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Uniwersytet Medyczny im. Piastów Śląskich we Wrocławiu / Wroclaw Medical University, Wrocław, Poland (Katedra i Zakład Medycyny Rodzinnej / Department of Family Medicine)
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Narodowy Instytut Zdrowia Publicznego – Państwowy Zakład Higieny / National Institute of Public Health – National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland
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Uniwersytet Medyczny im. Piastów Śląskich we Wrocławiu / Wroclaw Medical University, Wrocław, Poland (Klinika Pediatrii i Chorób Infekcyjnych / Department of Paediatrics and Infectious Diseases)
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Mazowiecki Wojewódzki Ośrodek Medycyny Pracy, Oddział w Radomiu / Mazovian Regional Center for Occupational Medicine, Branch Office in Radom, Radom, Poland
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Instytut Medycyny Pracy im. prof. J. Nofera w Łodzi / Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Ernest Kuchar   

Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny, Klinika Pediatrii z Oddziałem Obserwacyjnym, ul. Żwirki i Wigury 63a, 02-091 Warszawa
Online publication date: 2021-02-17
 
Med Pr 2021;72(2):193–210
 
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ABSTRACT
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most common viral neuroinfections in Poland. Detection of specific IgM and IgG anti- TBE antibodies in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a method of choice in TBE diagnostics. No effective antiviral treatment is available for TBE. Increased intracranial pressure, epileptic seizures, and other neurological symptoms in the course of TBE are managed with standard procedures. A routine use of corticosteroids is not recommended. Adults with TBE-related neurological sequelae should undergo physical mobilization and periodic neurological assessments. All patients ought to control their psychological condition and visit a physician in case of worrisome symptoms. Additionally, children need to undergo regular psychological and otolaryngologic consultations. Notably, TBE cases are reported across Poland; therefore, the entire country must be considered as a TBE risk region. The degree of endemicity can be variable in particular parts of the country. Immunization against TBE containing a European subtype of the virus is the most effective prophylactic method. In areas where the disease is highly endemic (according to the WHO definition of ≥5 cases/100 000 population/year), immunization needs to be offered to all ages. Vaccination is recommended in the communities living in areas of moderate TBE endemicity (1–5 cases/100 000/ year), in particular for individuals at high risk of a TBE infection as well as children and the elderly. Vaccination should also be offered to subjects living in areas where TBE occurrence is rare (<1 case/100 000/year) but who are at high risk of infection. A TBE vaccine is recommended to the following populations at high risk of TBE: a) individuals undertaking outdoor leisure activities, b) all professionals working outdoors, particularly in green areas, and c) individuals traveling to endemic areas, if activities during their visit may pose a risk of a tick bite. Post-exposure immunization is not recommended. Med Pr. 2021;72(2):193–210
eISSN:2353-1339
ISSN:0465-5893